Disaster Resilience and climate change adaptation strategies are often implemented by choice from available disaster mitigation programs. These programs are categorically divided into voluntary and mandatory programs. Most, however, are voluntary. Elective programs encourage owners and communities to implement design choice that can reduce the risk of damage from natural disasters while mandatory programs seek to enforce and enhance standards through law. In the same way that governments adopt model codes as law (e.g. the IBC), mandatory mitigation programs provide language for state and local government and Federal Agencies to adopt as law with the objective of reducing losses from natural hazards. HPBRS (High Performance Building Requirements for Sustainability) is a mandatory program ready for adoption. Often such requirements are formatted to facilitate adoption as amendments to the current IBC. Still, such mandatory amendments need to be adopted by local and state officials for progress to be made. And even when done so, the increased disaster resistance and improved durability are considered enhanced sustainability requirements within such amendments.
Much is happening to incorporate disaster resilience design strategies into standards and codes. Engineers continue to encourage the use of LEED and life-cycle assessment. A performance-based design standard for fire protection is to be published as a joint venture through the Fire Protection Committee of ASCE/SEI and NFPA. The AISC Design Guide 19 for fire design is also available. Other developments in FP can be found in ASCE/SEI/SFPE 29-05 Standard Calculation Methods for Structural Fire Protection 2005 and ACI 216.1-07 Code Requirements for Determining Fire Resistance of Concrete and Masonry Construction Assemblies, July 2007.
- Application of Database-assisted Design within the framework of the wind tunnel methods.
- Risk Targeted Earthquake to replace the Maximum Considered Earthquake in an effort to make risk the common denominator in design, instead of hazard.
- Structural load improvements.
- Methods for estimating wind speeds based on the logarithmic law long.
- Use of Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale for design wind speeds; database assisted design; and wind directionality effects.
- In conjunction with NRC, criteria on hurricane-borne missile speeds.
- Guidelines for including manufacturing into LCA.
Seismic events and weather-related disasters effect developed and developing countries, with much devastation faced by the rapidly growing low-income and lower middle-income countries (WBG, 2014). A lack of code compliancy along with failure to address issue of building and land-use regulatory policy in developing countries has lead to rapid urbanization without regard to disaster risk. The Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR), a World Bank-managed fund supported by 21 donor partners, the European Union, the World Bank, and the United Nations, is aiding in the provision of advanced knowledge and advice on disaster risk management. During the 2012-2013 fiscal year, GFDRR helped over 80 developing countries to better identify, prepare for, and recover from natural disasters (WBG, 2015). Assistance is provided across five areas: 1) risk identification; 2) risk reduction; 3) disaster preparedness; 4) financial protection for countries and people; and 5) resilient recovery when disaster does strike. The GFDRR aims to conventionalize disaster risk management and recovery into all country development polices and plans. A huge step towards this goal is the commitment of the International Development Association (IDA) to review all country strategies and operations for climate and disaster risks. (WBG, 2015).
ReferencesRodriguez-Nikl, T., Comber, M., Foo, S., Gimbert-Carter, S., Koklanos, P., Lemay, L., Maclise, L., VanGeem, M., and Webster, M. (2015). “Disaster Resilience and Sustainability”, SEI Sustainability Committee, Disaster Resilience Working Group, http://tiny.cc/DisResSust.
"Standards and Codes: Disaster-Resilient Structures and Communities." NIST. NIST Engineering Laboratory, 11 Jan. 2011. Web. 20 Oct. 2015.
“Improving Building Code Implementation and Compliance for More Resilient Buildings in Developing Coutnries: Considerations for Policy Makers.” The World Bank, October, 2014. Web. 21 Sept. 2015."Helping Countries Better Prepare for and Manage Disaster Risks, Climate Change." The World Bank, 30 January 2014. Web. 17 Sept. 2015.